Choosing the right bird foods does make a difference in the kinds of birds you attract—and how much you spend on your hobby. Some people ask, “Why pay more for seed from a specialty catalog or a specialty store when you can get the same thing cheaper at the grocery store?” Well, it’s not the same thing!—cheap bird seed is often full of sticks and other harvesting debris. And it usually contains a lot of “filler” seeds that most birds won’t eat, such as milo, wheat, and millet. These seeds are fine in limited quantities, but you don’t want them to predominate in the mix because they only appeal to a few types of birds. Since you’re paying by the pound, it makes sense not to pay for sticks and seeds that most birds don’t like. Premium seed will actually give you more edible seed per pound.
Pure, black oil sunflower seed wins the award for Best All Around bird seed and attracts the widest variety of birds. It’s economical and all seed eating birds love it—it’s rich in nutritious oils and the thin shells are easy for small birds to crack. It should be the foundation of any bird feeding plan. Sunflower hearts are a real favorite too. They’ve had the hulls stripped off and are relished by birds because they’re so easy to eat. Gray striped sunflower seeds are larger than black-oil, and have a harder shell. They’re fine for heavy-billed birds such as grosbeaks, jays, goldfinches and cardinals.
Suet, either plain, flavored, or mixed with seeds is a food that attracts even more birds than just seed eaters. If you can only feed one other food besides black oil seed, make it suet. Wrens, catbirds, bluebirds and mockingbirds are a few of the insect eaters that will come to a suet feeder, along with chickadees, woodpeckers, nuthatches and titmice to name a few.
Suet is a high fat food that provides birds with lots of energy for winter survival, spring nesting, and also helps them load up on the extra fat needed for migration. Suet is a year round food, not just for winter feeding! Suet is technically beef fat, but any foods that supply fat in quantity can also be used, such as vegetable shortening and peanut butter. Suet cakes are a convenient way to offer suet, needing only an inexpensive suet basket to place them in–get one labeled No-Melt for hot climates. And sometimes grocery stores will sell beef fat for bird feeding. It’s all good!
Nyjer (thistle) seed draws finches. Goldfinches can’t resist it and indigo buntings like it too. Feed it alone, or mixed with other seeds to attract these birds. Nyjer is very small seed. If offered alone, be sure to purchase a feeder specially made for Nyjer, so it won’t fall out of the feeder ports. Feeding Nyjer, sunflower seeds and suet will have you attracting just about every backyard bird.
To give your birds variety, there are other foods you can offer as well. Safflower seed is a high oil seed and is enjoyed by cardinals, grosbeaks, finches, chickadees, titmice and nuthatches. One reason people feed safflower seed is that squirrels usually avoid it!
Peanuts are a special treat for large birds. Jays and woodpeckers love them shelled and split or even with the shell on. Unfortunately, so do squirrels. If that’s going to be a problem, but you’d still like to offer peanuts, you can use peanut bits instead, mixed in with sunflower chips or other blends and put them in a caged, squirrel-resistant feeder.
White proso millet has a hard shell that makes it less prone to spoiling or rotting, so you can use this seed for ground or platform feeding as well as tube feeding. It’s wonderful if you have a lot of buntings at your feeders. It also appeals to sparrows, juncos, blackbirds, finches, doves and pigeons. It’s a key ingredient in many seed mixes, but as stated before, you may not want a mix consisting primarily of millet, especially if you don’t have buntings in your area, or would rather not attract some of these birds
Corn attracts many of the same birds that millet attracts, with the exception of buntings. It’s a good food, and those cute juncos and sparrows love it, but you may want to limit it if you’re not particularly fond of blackbirds, pigeons and doves–not to mention squirrels! However, if you love all the birds, as many do, by all means, choose blends with corn in them.
And finally, there are fruit and insect foods. Almost all birds eat insects. And nestlings have to be fed insects or suet because they can’t digest seeds until they have fledged. Insect foods will attract bluebirds, catbirds, veerys, wrens, robins…and so many more! You can offer live or roasted mealworms, dried or canned waxworms and even fly larvae. Fruit will appeal to cardinals, orioles, mockingbirds, robins, waxwings and others. Try putting out orange halves, apple halves, raisins, and grapes. Very Berry mix contains bits of dried cherries and blueberries which these birds will also enjoy.
There’s an endless variety of seeds you can feed your wild birds. Buy single varieties in bulk and mix them yourself, or buy blends already made for you. The important thing is to read the ingredients. The best blends will consist mostly of sunflower seeds or hearts, peanuts or tree nuts, Nyjer, and lesser amounts of the “filler” seeds mentioned earlier. It may seem more expensive initially, but in the long run you will attract a larger variety of birds and have less wasted seed.